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Written by Dr. Michael Dejene Bejiga, MD, MPH, MSc. What is trachoma? Trachoma is a disease of the eye and is the leading infectious cause of avoidable blindness. [1,2] It is caused by infection with a certain strain of bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatus and is transmitted by direct or indirect...

Ocular Toxoplasmosis

What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is a condition that develops after infection by the toxoplasma gondii parasite. Ocular toxoplasmosis is the term for the effects in the eye of a toxoplasma gondii infection. This parasite is one of the most common in the world. In the USA, it is estimated that...


What is episcleritis? Episcleritis refers to inflammation of the episclera, which is a very thin layer of clear tissue that sits between the white part of the eye (the sclera, located beneath it) and another clear layer of tissue (the conjunctiva, located above it). Episcleritis causes the eye to look...


What is scleritis? Scleritis refers to inflammation of the sclera, the white part of the eye that lies beneath two thin layers of clear tissue (the conjunctiva and episclera). When the sclera is inflamed, it appears red, swollen, and is usually very painful. Scleritis is a serious condition that if...

Microbial Keratitis

What is microbial keratitis? Microbial keratitis is an infection of the cornea (clear front dome of the eye that focuses light entering the eye). It is a sight-threatening condition caused by bacteria, fungi, or less commonly, other microbes (also called microorganisms). Loss of vision can be a consequence of the...


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